Certificate Transparency logging

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Overview

Certificate Transparency (CT) is an approach to logging certificates issued by a certificate authority for audit purposes. This design adds CT support to Dogtag.

Specifications

CT was first developed and deployed at Google. RFC 6962 was published post hoc and describes the original protocol developed and deployed by Google. Many logs still use this protocol. It is now referred to as CT 1.0.

Later, the IETF trans working group was formed to refine and achieve consensus on a CT protocol for widespread deployment. An Internet-Draft defining CT 2.0 is being actively developed.

Right now, most logs conform to CT 1.0 but CT 2.0 is likely to dominate in the future.

Terminology

CT log (or just log)
A network service that implements the CT protocol and maintains a log of submitted certificates.
Signed Certificate Timestamp
A verifiable object issued by a CT log, to assert inclusion of a particular certificate in a log.
precertificate
A signed object containing a TBSCertificate structure identical to the certificate that will be issued, except that the Transparency Information extension is omitted. In CT 1.0 this is an X.509 certificate. In CT 2.0 it is a CMS structure (to avoid violating serial number constraints)
embedded SCT
A SCT embedded in the X.509 certificate via the Transparency Information extension.
Log ID
A unique OID assigned to each log (CT 2.0), or a digest of the log's public key (CT 1.0).

CT logs

A CT log maintains an append-only, cryptographically verifiable log of certificates submitted to it. Typically, a given log will only accept certificates that chain to particular root CAs. For example, a public CT log is likely to accept certificates that chain to popular, public-trusted CAs. Upon acceptance of a certificate to a log, the CT log returns a Signed Certificate Timestamp (SCT) to the client.

A certificate can be submitted to multiple logs.

Certificates may be submitted prior to or after issuance, by any party, but typically by the CA itself. Pre-issuance logging logs a signed precertificate, and the returned SCT can be included in the final certificate via an extension. When precertificate logging is performed, the CA must perform two signing operations: one for the precertificate and, afterwards, one for the certificate.

Anyone can operate a CT log, and anyone can submit certificates to public CT logs. Anyone can monitor a public CT log. For certificate verification, browsers utilise a select set of public CT logs. The exact set will vary over time (logs can be "retired" for various reasons, and new logs brought online) and may differ between browsers.

Each log is identified by a Log ID which is a unique OID in CT 2.0 and a digest of the log's public key in CT 1.0. in the CT protocol include the DER-encoded Log ID.

Browser requirements

In the years leading up to 2018, CT logging was required for EV certificates (to be recognised as EV) and for certificates issued by some CAs (to be trusted at all). In mid-2018, browsers began to require all publicly-trusted certificates to be present in multiple logs.

The requirements of a browser may be complex. For example, the Chromium CT policy requires at minimum SCTs from one Google-operated log and one non-Google-operated log. In some circumstances SCTs from five qualified logs are required.

The CT logging requirement is only applied to certificates issued by "public" CAs. Certificates issued by private PKIs are not subjected to the requirement. Nevertheless, there are benefits in using CT with private PKIs (outlined below).

Benefits of CT

CAs, browser vendors and the public can monitor logs to identify mis-issued certificates or hijacked infrastructure. This applies equally to public and private PKI. When CT logging is required, encountering a non-logged certificate implicates the issuing CA in either a failure of security controls, or malpractice.

Domain operators can monitor logs for occurences of their domains, making it possible to observe unauthorised issuance of certificates to their domains.

Public CT logs are a source of intelligence regarding potential phishing attacks, brand/trademark protection, etc.

Conveying SCTs to browsers

There are three ways to convey SCTs to browsers:

  1. SCTs embedded in certificates. This requires the CA to log the precertificate and embed the returned SCT(s) in the final certificate. This approach requires changes to CA software.
  2. SCTs in OCSP responses. The OCSP responder can collect SCTs for a certificate and include them in OCSP responses. A TLS server can use OCSP stapling to convey the SCT-bearing OCSP response to the client. This approach requires changes to OCSP responder software. It also requires the TLS server to support OCSP stapling (already widely supported).
  3. The TLS server can use a TLS extension to convey SCTs to the client. This requires changes to TLS server software but does not require any changes to CA or OCSP software.

Associated Bugs and Tickets

Main ticket: https://pagure.io/dogtagpki/issue/2989

Use Cases

There are a number of use cases relevant to Dogtag. Initially we may address only a subset of them.

  1. As an enterprise PKI operator or auditor, I want the CA to log all certificates to one or more CT logs for monitoring purposes.
  2. As an operator of a Dogtag instance chained to a publicly-trusted CA, I want Dogtag to issue certificates with embedded SCTs such that they will be trusted by browsers.
  3. As an operator of a Dogtag instance chained to a publicly-trusted CA, I want Dogtag's OCSP responder to include SCTs in responses, such that certificates will be trusted by browsers when OCSP stapling is used.
  4. As an operator of a Dogtag instance I want to log previously-issued certificates to a CT log that was not previously used by the instance.

Design

There are two main aspects to CT support in Dogtag: CT logging itself, and OCSP responder enhancements. These are related but independent.

CT logging

Configuration

CT logging is all or nothing. It does not make sense to log certificates for some profiles but not others. Therefore, a global configuration for CT logging is appropriate.

CT logging configuration shall be stored in LDAP. Changes to CT logging configuration on one clone shall be effected topology-wide due to LDAP replication

An instance may be configured to log to zero or more logs.

TODO: define log configuration objects, attributes and semantics

A log configuration must include:

  • The log URL
  • The CT protocol version to use

Pre- or post-issuance logging?

Precertificate logging introduces a dependency on external system(s) during certificate issuance. If logging fails (e.g. due to log downtime or transient error), one of two things must happen:

  1. Issuance fails or is deferred until precertificate logging has succeeded.
  2. Issuance continues, without logging (therefore without an embedded SCT). The issued certificate can be added to a queue for later logging.

Alternatively, post-issuance logging involves attempting to log the certificate after issuance. Rather than make this part of the request cycle, it is logical to enqueue the certificate and have a background thread deal with the logging.

Furthermore, it will sometimes be desirable to log previously-issued certificates with new logs that were not configured at the time of issuance. Browsers' CT log "agility" means that embedded SCTs that were accepted by browsers at the time of issuance may be rejected by browsers at some later time. Whether directly supported by Dogtag or not, post hoc logging of certificates will sometimes be required.

Therefore, the initial implementation in Dogtag shall be post-issuance logging, i.e. logging of the issued certificate.

Storing SCTs

Whether logged as a precertificate or after issuance, SCTs returned by logs shall be stored in a certificate record. SCTs shall be stored in the certificate entry. Schema as follows:

( OID-TO-BE-DEFINED
   NAME 'signedCertificateTimestamp'
   EQUALITY octetStringMatch
   SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.40 )

1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.40 refers to the Octet String syntax (RFC 4517).

The value is either:

  • for CT 1.0, a SignedCertificateTimestamp structure
  • for CT 2.0, a TransItem structure of type x509_sct_v2 or precert_sct_v2 encapsulating a SignedCertificateTimestampDataV2 structure.

NOTE: it might be better to define two attributes - one for CT 1.0 SCTs and one for CT 2.0 TransItem structures.

Logging queue and thread

There are several options for processing enqueued logging requests:

  • The queue is per-clone and ephemeral. Each certificate is logged by the clone that issued it. The queue is in-memory and not committed to the database. This has the simplest implementation, but if the server process is terminated, pending log requests are lost.
  • Each clone logs its own certificates, but the queues are committed to the database to avoid missing log operations if the server process is terminated before all log operations have completed and SCTs committed to the database.
  • A single clone appointed "CT master" can perform all CT logging. This may be desirable to constrain firewall holes to a single place. Logging requests must be written to the database when a clone issues a certificate, and the CT master shall monitor the queue and perform requested logging.

A fourth option - that any clone or an appointed subset of clones can log any certificate - is summarily excluded on the basis of undue complexity due to "locking" requirements. That is, we do not want to log the same certificate multiple times to each configured CT log, and to prevent this introduces an unacceptable amount of complexity.

The per-clone ephemeral queue is suggested as the initial implementation. With the right design, its implementation could be re-used within a database-based logging queue implementation.

TODO detailed design.

No-queue option

It's possible to perform desired logging without an explicit queue structure (either ephemeral or in database).

Suppose Dogtag's CT logging configuration includes a start date for the use of a particular CT log. For each configured log, the logging thread can search for all certificates issued after that date. If the certificate record does not contain an SCT for that log, it should be logged.

This is an expensive approach, O(n) in the number of certificates certificate records to be processed (if we regard the typically small number of logs involved as a constant factor). It is not a good general approach for logging, but is discussed for completeness.

OCSP responder

The CT 2.0 Internet-Draft (v28) states:

7.1.1.  OCSP Response Extension

   A certification authority MAY include a Transparency Information
   X.509v3 extension in the "singleExtensions" of a "SingleResponse" in
   an OCSP response.  All included SCTs and inclusion proofs MUST be for
   the certificate identified by the "certID" of that "SingleResponse",
   or for a precertificate that corresponds to that certificate.

The Transparency Information extension is non-criticial, so there is no harm in unconditionally including it in OCSP responses. Therefore, all SCTs in a certificate record shall be included in OCSP responses.

See Storing SCTs for a description of how SCTs are stored in a certificate record.

Configuration

No configuration is required.

Response extensions

CT 1.0 SCTs shall be included in an OCSP extension with OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.11129.2.4.5 and body:

SignedCertificateTimestampList ::= OCTET STRING

opaque SerializedSCT<1..2^16-1>;

struct {
    SerializedSCT sct_list <1..2^16-1>;
} SignedCertificateTimestampList;

See https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6962#section-3.3 for details.

CT 2.0 SCTs and related TransItem values shall be included in an OCSP extension with OID 1.3.101.75 and body:

TransparencyInformationSyntax ::= OCTET STRING

opaque SerializedTransItem<1..2^16-1>;

struct {
    SerializedTransItem trans_item_list<1..2^16-1>;
} TransItemList;

See https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-trans-rfc6962-bis-28#section-7.1 for details.

Implementation

Some complexity is anticipated in dealing with CT 1.0 and CT 2.0. Details will be added as these complexities emerge.

How to use

TODO

Cloning

There is no impact on cloning.

Updates and Upgrades

The new schema for storing SCTs must be added on upgrade.

Tests

Dependencies

External Impact

After delivery of this feature, it can be considered whether FreeIPA should be enhanced to include an optional CT log role.

History